In the modern era, gone are the days when whole island villages consumed all the food they needed by planting gardens, fishing in the ocean and picking food off of the trees. With the modernization of consumption practices comes a whole new slew of issues island nations have to face. These items can be listed in three major categories: health, infrastructure and pollution. Over the last 40 years as consumption practices around the world have significantly changed the way island communities interact with the world around them.
Non Communicable Diseases – Issues with Health
One of the largest problems with modernization of island communities is the overall diet that is being consumed by the population as a whole. According to the World Health Organization, a transition has occurred from pathogen based diseases to food intake and activity based health concerns. In the 2011 report on American Samoa the WHO reports;
“The most serious health issues relate to the increase in chronic diseases associated with lifestyle, with their roots in improper nutrition and physical inactivity. Significant increases in the prevalence of obesity, in both sexes and at increasingly younger ages, are associated with a number of these conditions. Hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, type II diabetes mellitus and its complications, arthritis, gout and some forms of cancer are among the most important chronic diseases. (http://www.wpro.who.int/countries/asm/1FAMSpro2011_finaldraft.pdf)
These dietary concerns are largely focused on the prevalence of foods packaged in metal lined plastic bags. Prepackaged foods fall out of shipping containers like waves on a shore. The names and varieties are as diverse as the country of origin the store owners call home. In American Samoa, local markets are rarely operated by indigenous islanders and are instead run by entrepreneurs from places like Vietnam and China. As part of the big picture of the problems with the local economy, this is one of the issues that many may point to regarding causes of money leaving the local economy at a catastrophic rate. What can be said to be growing in America Samoa at an enormous rate is the wasteline of children. With the prevalence of packaged food, the tastes of children are turning to this highly addictive, easy to consume food. And the results are showing. Diabetes, anemia, cancer and heart disease are all appearing as part of a modernized Samoa that are not part of it’s history and culture. According to a guest speaker at a recent farming education event, the island of American Samoa is currently facing a 40% or greater population diagnosis of Diabetes. This staggering statistic is supported by the American Diabetes Association
Pollution – What happens to all that packaging?
Another part of the island life that was never part of it’s original heritage is the packaging from these manufactured goods. Items like steel food containers, aluminum cans, plastic bottles and bags with a metallic lining are being shipped to the island and are offloaded from shipping containers by the tens of thousands every couple of weeks. With these imported materials comes a requirement to dispose of these materials on island or export them for reclamation of the natural resources they contain. In the case of many Pacific Island Nations with no recycling programs, the eventuality for the majority of these items is the community landfill. For islands with recycling initiatives in place, these programs are often source separated materials – requiring individualized participation at a community drop off point instead of curbside pickup. The need to expand collection he problem can be addressed by acquiring the next stage in technology, MRF Units. The issue is expanding the capacity to recycle to include single stream sources like generated from public recycling containers like those found in community parks and at business locations, further allowing or even mandating by law – curbside collection that occurs in most, but not all, states.
What do you do when there is no concentrated focus on recycling as part of the cultural norm? Unfortunately, as is often seen in American Samoa, where the focus of recycling does not exist – excessive littering and open burning of trash does. This creates two specific problems. One, emissions from burning trash are often toxic, especially when burning plastics and hazardous materials like batteries. In addition, island based littering adds to the global burden of mitigating ocean pollution efforts by groups like The Plastic Pollution Coalition and 5 Gyres. Due to the creation of litter on island nations combined with relatively short distances for litter to travel to reach the ocean, much of this debris can become ocean debris as it enters streams and estuaries that feed into global currents.
With limited space to increase infrastructure, meet growing population needs and prepare for rising sea levels expected with continued melting of the global ice shelves and glaciers; island governments will face many difficulties between balancing the population’s desires for manufactured and consumer goods and the need manage the waste stream produced by a growing consumption of these goods. Without the implementation of infrastructure to separate and process the packaging from these goods, many governments are likely to find themselves beyond reasonable capacity in managing their island’s waste streams.
Unfortunately, even with a focus toward capturing recycling goods, there are other issues to be focused on throughout the search to develop solutions. One reason recycling programs often have difficulty taking off is the cost of shipping materials off island. When local businesses ship items inbound for the community to purchase, it’s easy to add the costs of shipping these items into the retail price. However, without enhanced manufactures responsibility to reclaim or assist with the costs of shipping the items or their packaging off island, governments will continue to find the cost of shipping recycled goods to be greater than the resale value of the raw materials themselves. It will only be with a blend of government action, education, and increased infrastructure that the combined issues of healthy lifestyles and waste management can be effectively tackled.